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Male Suicide: Why are Men Leaving? Part III

 

John Davis[1]

Part III

Robin Williams – A Tragedy for All

 

“Ah, Yes. Divorce. From the Latin word for ripping out a man’s genitals through his wallet.”

– Robin Williams

 

 

This is the Author’s third part in a series of articles on male suicide.

Robin Williams typifies the men who are most likely to fall victim to male suicide in our culture.

Robin contributed much to our Culture. He helped define our self-awareness and consciousness for over forty years. His sense of humor, and his comic delivery delighted hundreds of millions of people all around the world.

On August 11, 2014, Robin, at age 63, ended his life by hanging himself.[2] He was alone when he decided to die rather than face the “slings and arrows of outrageous fortune” that confronted him.

In this third part, we are going to take a look at some of the facts of Robin’s death that are common among men committing suicide.

 

Enforced Isolation – Relentless Institutional Misandry

From police accounts, and the autopsy, we know that Robin was suffering from a common (but often mis-diagnosed) illness known as “Lewy Body Dementia.”

Lewy Body Dementia or [“LBD” for short] is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer’s. It affects about 1.3 million Americans. It is more common in men, than women.[3]

LBD causes a progressive decline in a man’s mental functions, and, often is accompanied by Parkinson’s type symptoms of muscle rigidity and loss of muscular control.

The result of this illness, in Robin, was that it became very, very stressful for him to do his work. There is really no serious government funding to assist men in overcoming the difficulties associated with this illness. Most medical research in the US is devoted to solving women’s health issues.

Friends report that before he committed suicide, Robin was mentioning to everyone that he was having serious financial difficulties. It is easy to understand why he was having financial difficulties. Biased family court judges had ordered him to pay over $30,000,000 to his former wives so that they could live in luxury. This type of oppression against men, in divorce, is euphemistically called giving the ex-wives “a life to which they are accustomed.”

This oppressive seizure of men’s assets, to provide lives of luxury for ex-wives, is a medieval practice that has never seen reform in modern law.[4]

The result of having to pay huge sums of money to his ex-wives was that Robin was taking jobs for low-budget sequels to his previous movies. These sequels were low-quality substitutes for the original movies, and, represented an insult to his career, his accomplishments and his skill and talents as an actor.

The pinnacle insult to his self esteem and acting career came when he was forced, to pay for his former wives’ luxuries, to take a television series engagement. The shows failed, and, on top of other pressures, he was unable to recover from the shock of the failure.

The financial stresses caused by the demands of his former wives made him vulnerable to clinical depression. This combined with the stress, anxiety and depression he was suffering, by having to work while suffering an illness that was crippling his talents, fueled severe depression, anxiety and hopelessness in Robin.

There is no evidence that any of his former wives made any responsible efforts to support him in these trying times. Far from it, Robin had been isolated from his immediate family support, and his children, by his former wives.

 

alone-robin-williams-1

 

He was facing bankruptcy. He had court ordered commitments he could not meet. He was losing his life’s work to an illness. He was a middle-aged white man, suffering severe depression, and, he was alone. He was typical of the men who are leaving us through suicide because he could find no way out, and, no help from others who had taken advantage of his life and earnings.

 

A Man of our Times

Although Robin was atypical of modern men in so far as he possessed great talent and success, Robin was typical of the victims of our culture’s hatred and neglect of men, and, its refusal to grant support to men who are struggling.

Much of the hatred, and oppression, of men in our culture that drives men to suicide is subtle and unrecognized. In our culture, we drive men to depression and often suicide, in a myriad of ways that arise as much, or more, from what our culture refuses to do for men that could help them, and, prevent them from suffering the helplessness, and hopelessness, of lives decimated from a system that is unfair, and which places impossible burdens on men simply because of their gender.

In the Fourth and final part of this series, we will explore some of the other misandry in our culture that is routinely driving men to hopelessness, despair and suicide.

if-you-are-ever-in-distress-robin-williams-tribute

 

About the Author:

Please visit John’s AMAZON author’s page at: http://www.amazon.com/John-Davis-BA-JD-LLM/e/B00O2JS3HW/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0

John Davis (1953 – ) was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He was educated at Case Western Reserve University (BA) (one of the top ten universities in the United States), Seattle University School of Law (JD), and, New York University School of Law (LL.M post-doctoral) (one of the top ten law schools in the United States). John is fluent in seven languages (including ancient Latin and Greek). He has travelled the world over, many times, and has represented clients, in his thirty-five year career, such as the United States Government and the Federation of Russia.

He has been a prosecutor three times in his 35 year career. He has held positions such as Assistant Attorney General, United States Speaker, and Assistant District Attorney, Chief Wing JAG, U. S. Air Force Auxiliary, and Supreme Court Law Clerk.

For most of his career in civil law, John was a successful international lawyer, practicing in many nations around the world.

John has authored the following MRA books:

Female Sex Predators: A Crime Epidemic

Women Who Rape Men

False Accusations of Rape: Lynching in the 21st. Century

How to Avoid False accusations of Rape

Women of the Klan: Foundations of Modern Feminism

Rape Hysteria: Lying with Rape Statistics

 

[1] Bacheloris Artis, Case Western Reserve University 1975; Juris Doctor, Seattle University School of Law 1981; Legis Magister, New York University School of Law 1984.

[2] “Robin Williams death: Police Confirm Suicide.”   British Broadcasting Corporation, August 13, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-28765693

[3] “LEWY BODY DEMENTIA ASSOCIATION ASKS MEN TO “RETHINK” FITNESS — MENTAL FITNESS — DURING MEN’S HEALTH WEEK,” June 11, 2014. https://www.lbda.org/content/lewy-body-dementia-assoc-asks-men-%E2%80%9Crethink%E2%80%9D-fitness-mental-fitness-during-men%E2%80%99s-health-week

[4] If we were to give divorced men the same benefits of marriage, so that they could continue having the life “to which they were accustomed” during the marriage, one wonders if courts should be compelled to order the ex-wife to provide sex and comity to the divorced man, for the rest of his life, in addition to ordering the husband to pay money to the ex-wife.

 

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Male Suicide: Why are Men Leaving? Part II

gender-cleansing-planned-parenthood

 

John Davis[1]

Part II

Clinical Depression in Men

 

“Battle not with monsters, lest ye become a monster, and if you gaze into the abyss, the abyss looks back into you.”[2]   – Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

 

This is the Author’s second part in a series of articles on male suicide.

In the first article in this series, we gained a brief view of the the problem of Men committing suicide in our modern age. We pointed to some of the most important factors that cause suicide – clinical depression, and willful indifference to men committing suicide. We also discussed how society’s misandry (hatred of men) accelerates the causes of suicide in men.

In this second part, we are going to take a look at some of the science that applies to men committing suicide.

 

Clinical Depression – The Abyss

Suicide is rarely a rational choice. Some cultures (such as the Samurai) adopted suicide as a rational choice in some circumstances. However, in modern times, most suicide in Men is a result of a medical condition known as “clinical depression.”

Clinical depression is a medical condition. Two components contribute to clinical depression. The first involves biological conditions in men that make men vulnerable to clinical depression. For example, we know that, currently, the largest number of men committing suicide are white men in their mid fifties to early sixties. A biological factor that is probably causing that group to be vulnerable to clinical depression, and suicide, is the diminishing amount of testosterone that occurs in men who are aging. Another biological factor in clinical depression, and suicide in men, involves genetic factors which can make some men, of some races, more pre-disposed to suffer clinical depression than others.

In addition to biological factors that cause depression, there are psychological factors that are also causes. Someone who is constantly abused by his status in a culture, for instance, can develop clinical depression. A man who has had a run of “bad luck” in employment, or relationships, or in any area of life endeavors, can become “clinically depressed” as a result of consistent feelings of despondency and hopelessness.

Clinical depression is different from “depression,” or “sadness,” or “grief,” or “feeling down.” Clinical depression is an actual physical condition, involving the brain, central nervous system and a man’s entire body. Clinical depression usually requires medical intervention to reverse a complex cycle of despondency and emotional pain causing physical changes. Those same physical changes in the body generate even more emotional pain, despondency and despair in a man.

The pain of clinical depression in its victims is very real. It is physical, as well as emotional, and, can become so devastating that it compels a man to end his life as the only means of escaping its seemingly endless torment.

 

Cultural Causes of Clinical Depression –

If we examine our current gynocentric culture, we can find the psychological factors that are contributing to clinical depression in men.

Our most reliable, objective indicator, is the timing at which the disparity in suicide, between men and women, began to skyrocket. The following graph shows that the disparity arose at about the same time that feminism and gynocentrism began its domination of our culture.

amazon-fsp-male-suicide-rates

In analyzing a graph like this, we cannot absolutely conclude that the skyrocketing suicide rate of men, occurring at the same time as the rise of feminism and gynocentrism, was caused by feminism and gynocentrism. However, there are many observations about the rise of feminism that argue, by themselves, that the rise of feminism and gynocentrism is the cause of men committing suicide at a much greater rate than women.

Feminism began in the benign disguise of creating “equality” for women. With 20/20 hindsight, however, we can see that feminism was something else.

Gender roles in cultures developed over thousands of years. Those roles were often necessitated by the harsh realities of survival. They represented a “division of labor” between the genders based upon their respective strong and weak points.

With the advent of the industrial revolution, many of those gender roles, and the necessity for them, began to change. Women sought changes, for their own gratification, to a social contract that was thousands of years old.

Our culture immediately saw the profit available for advancing women’s interests [at the expense of men]. Flooding the market with women workers would automatically lower the cost and demand for labor. Madison avenue (the mainstream media) astutely recognized that although men earned money in our economy, the social contract called for women to control that money. Women were, therefore, targeted by corporate interests as being superior to men for purposes of corporate profit. Promoting feminism and gynocentrism then became an obsession with corporate America (and other countries imitating American corporate rule) and richly rewarded all businesses that pandered to the principles of feminism and gynocentrism.

This obsession is about profit . . . . It has nothing to do with “gender equality” except as a deceitful narrative.

With heavy, and organized support, from all institutions that were dependent on the profits of multi-nationals seeking profits from gynocentrism, our culture began to shame, demean, accuse and hate men and masculinity. Feminism, from the beginning, as well as those who profit from it, recognized that it was easy to manipulate voters and consumers, and men, through attacks on men and masculinity.

What should have been a rational re-negotiation of gender roles, under the social contract governing our civilization, became an all out war on men and masculinity, for profit, based on hate.

 

The Rise of the Feminist State – Monsters & the Abyss

This campaign of hate gave rise in Western cultures to a Feminist State.[3]

“The Feminist State” can best be described as a profit-motivated, concerted effort on the part of government, media, religion and multi-national corporations, to engage in the open hatred of men. At the same time, the “feminist state” justifies the hatred, and, uses it as a premise upon which to grant women special privileges, at the expense of men.

To persuade voters and consumers and “leaders” to adopt this campaign of hatred of men and masculinity, it was necessary for a wide, and relentless, dissemination of hateful media that demonized men, degraded men, and ultimately condemned men for their feelings, needs, historical accomplishments, and their masculine essence.

For fifty years, our culture, through mass media, has relentlessly portrayed men as worthless, rapists, wife beaters, undeserving, violent criminals, exploiters of women, child molesters, etc., etc., etc. All of this demonizing hate came from medieval stereotypes that the mass media perpetuated in its campaign of unrestrained misandry.

Is it any wonder that the skyrocketing rates of male suicide coincide with the onset of the feminist state, and, the hate campaign it inspired?

 

scum-manifesto-scum

 

This campaign of mass propaganda, relentlessly pressed over a period of a half of a century, was psychological warfare on men. This misandry provided the psychological component to clinical depression that drove countless hundreds of thousands of men to suicide over that time.

Was this intentional “gender cleansing” on the part of the feminist state? At the very least the feminist state was, and remains, willfully blind to its war on men and the casualties.

In the next part of this series, we will take a look at Robin Williams, and, how the feminist state, and its hatred of men, caused the suicide of a gentle, loving man whose talent graced the lives of everyone he touched.

 

About the Author:

Please visit John’s AMAZON author’s page at: http://www.amazon.com/John-Davis-BA-JD-LLM/e/B00O2JS3HW/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0

John Davis (1953 – ) was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He was educated at Case Western Reserve University (BA) (one of the top ten universities in the United States), Seattle University School of Law (JD), and, New York University School of Law (LL.M post-doctoral) (one of the top ten law schools in the United States). John is fluent in seven languages (including ancient Latin and Greek). He has travelled the world over, many times, and has represented clients, in his thirty-five year career, such as the United States Government and the Federation of Russia.

He has been a prosecutor three times in his 35 year career. He has held positions such as Assistant Attorney General, United States Speaker, and Assistant District Attorney, Chief Wing JAG, U. S. Air Force Auxiliary, and Supreme Court Law Clerk.

For most of his career in civil law, John was a successful international lawyer, practicing in many nations around the world.

John has authored the following MRA books:

Female Sex Predators: A Crime Epidemic

Women Who Rape Men

False Accusations of Rape: Lynching in the 21st. Century

How to Avoid False accusations of Rape

Women of the Klan: Foundations of Modern Feminism

Rape Hysteria: Lying with Rape Statistics

 

[1] Bacheloris Artis, Case Western Reserve University 1975; Juris Doctor, Seattle University School of Law 1981; Legis Magister, New York University School of Law 1984.

[2] Wer mit Ungeheuern kämpft, mag zusehn, dass er nicht dabei zum Ungeheuer wird. Und wenn du lange in einen Abgrund blickst, blickt der Abgrund auch in dich hinein.” – Aph. 146

[3] The term: “feminist state,” was first coined by Prof. Linda Kelly in her law review article from 2003. Kelly, Linda, “DISABUSING THE DEFINITION OF DOMESTIC ABUSE: HOW WOMEN BATTER MEN AND THE ROLE OF THE FEMINIST STATE,” 30 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 790, 824 (2003).

Male Suicide: Why are Men Leaving? Part I

feminist-governments-are-silent

John Davis[1]

Part I
Gender Cleansing

 

“No man is an Iland. . . .

Any mans death diminishes me,

For I am involved in Mankinde;

And therefore, never send to know

For whom the bell tolls;

It tolls for thee.”   – John Donne (1541)

 

 

This is the Author’s first in a series of articles on male suicide.

Unnoticed, in our gynocentric world, the rate of men taking their own lives has dramatically accelerated in the last half of a century.

Suicide is now the single most common cause of death for active duty service men; there are now over 38,000 suicides in the U.S. each year, and, of those 38,000, 30,400 victims are male; 83 men commit suicide every day; men commit suicide at 4 times the rate of women.[2] The rate of men being afflicted more than women has been increasing in the past 14 years, and, the rate at which men commit suicide, more than women, has been skyrocketing in the past ten years.[3]

Feminism routinely accuses men, and our culture, of “patriarchal conspiracies” to oppress women. Perhaps it is appropriate to view the current epidemic in male suicides in a light that demonstrates a similar knowing and wilfull effort to oppress men by denying them the health care, and other relief, needed to prevent suicide. The concept of a deliberate (or at least a socially accepted) effort to reduce the number of men in our culture is no less probable than the feminist accusation of a “patriarchal conspiracy.”

The fact that these tragic suicides of Men goes unnoticed in the media provides us with a strong indicator of the cause of men leaving us through suicide.

 

Why Are Men Committing Suicide?

Most people, and institutions in our culture just don’t care that men are committing suicide. Our culture has become so misandrist (hateful of men), and so gynocentric (centered on pleasing women) that institutional misandry in universities, government, religion and the media compels us to ignore the fact that men, as a group, are suffering tremendously in our culture from gender oppression.

This “gender oppression” arose from relentless feminist influence on our institutions over the past 50 years. At first, that feminist influence appeared benign. Feminism pretended for five decades to be a movement towards “equality” between men and women. Feminism, however, was a disguised movement to provide women with massive privileges, at the expense of men. This has led to an almost habitual discrimination against men in our culture, and in our institutions. This discrimination and hatred of men is only recently coming to light. The extent of this discrimination against men has become so extreme, that only now can we begin to get a glimpse of the design of how our institutions are knowingly, and purposefully, trying to use “passive-aggressive”[4] means of eliminating men in larger and larger numbers.

 

Health Funding Denied for Suicidal Men

For clarity, let’s look at an example, of male oppression, for clarity. Under the influence of the feminist lobby, the U.S. Congress appropriates $500,000,000 (Five Hundred Million Dollars) each year to Planned Parenthood. Although Planned Parenthood renders some token services to men, (in order to have the illusion of gender fairness), the vast majority of Planned Parenthood’s budget is earmarked specifically for “women’s health.” Which is why modern feminists protest loudly at any attempts to cut Planned Parenthood’s budget as “an attack on women’s health” (not men’s health), or, they protest that a cut in Planned Parenthood’s budget is “part of the war on women.”

Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D. MA) is the leading spokeswoman proclaiming (and admitting) that the half billion dollars spent on Planned Parenthood is primarily for the benefit of Women’s Health (but not inclusive of men’s health issues).

A vote today to defund Planned Parenthood is not a vote to defund abortions. It’s a vote to defund cancer screenings, and birth control, and basic healthcare for millions of women.

She continues,

Let’s be really clear about something: The Republican scheme to defund Planned Parenthood is not some sort of surprised response to a highly-edited video. Nope. The Republican vote to defund Planned Parenthood is just one more piece of a deliberate, methodical, orchestrated, right-wing attack on women’s rights. And I’m sick and tired of it. Women everywhere are sick and tired of it. The American people are sick and tired of it. — Elizabeth Warren[5]

As benign as Planned Parenthood may be, in providing health services for women, why is there no counterbalancing funding to provide critical health services for men – especially for men who are suffering from clinical depression and suicidal tendencies? “Reproductive health services” are important, but aren’t neglected life saving health services for men, who are on the brink of suicide, at least as important? Is this gender inequality something that is acceptable? Or, is this gender inequality something that may be insidious, intentional, and part of a war on men and masculinity? Is it part of a plan of “gender cleansing?”

Gender cleansing is a feminist term that refers to artificial adjustments to the ratio of males and females in populations. Although feminists typically apply the term “gender cleansing” only to a reduction in females in populations, we can draw a parallel for government and cultural actions, and lack of action, to apply “gender cleansing” to efforts to reduce the number of men in populations.

Is feminism Driving Gender Cleansing of Men?

Sen. Warren and her followers are ardent feminists. Does that mean that they are seeking “equality” between men and women, or, does that mean they have declared war on men and masculinity? Our corporate controlled media has, for decades, portrayed feminism as a benign movement for equality between men and women. However, an examination of the true roots of feminism shows that it may very well be an intentional war on men, and masculinity; it may very well be a deadly war in which the objective is to cleanse our modern industrialized populations of both men, and masculinity.

 

“The proportion of men must be reduced to and maintained at 10% of the human race.” Sally Miller Gearhart (First Wave Feminist Leader)

 

One way to advance a war against men, and masculinity, is to promote the death of men through suicide, and passively-aggressively denying aid to men who are suicidal. Denying government funding toward male suicide prevention, and, fostering gynocentric programs that, arguably, are partly the cause of men committing suicide, may very well be an intentional plan on the part of feminist lobbies, (and the politicians, industries and media who gain from serving gynocentric powers).

From first wave feminism to the present, feminism has accused men of actively conspiring to suppress women’s rights, keep women in subservient roles, deny women access to men’s “privileges,” and deny women “equal opportunities” in all areas of our culture. Yet, many people find it implausible that feminists, in conjunction with the self-seekers who support them for economic or political benefits, are deliberately orchestrating a means of eliminating men from our culture (much as a beehive purges itself of male bees just before winter).

As feminism has gained power in the corporate media, government, education and other institutions, it has succeeded in increasing the disposability of men. Men fought wars for human freedom; men labored at great personal cost to physically build our infrastructure; men devoted their lives to the development of arts, science and philosophies that serve humanity; men gave their lives to fight for decent wages, and decent working conditions, and they fought, at great expense to their health and longevity, to raise the standard of living for every human on the planet. Now that men have built modern civilization, they seem to be “irrelevant” to those who want to enjoy the benefits of that civilization without shouldering the burdens of its creation. If there is a deliberate tolerance of such policies, or, even an unaware indifference to such policies, it is sufficient to be one of the principal macro-causes of men committing suicide.

 

Misandry and Demonizing Men as a Cause of Suicide

Hatred of Men has become an obsession with feminism and the institutions (media, government and education) that support feminism. Hatred of Men (misandry) has risen in intensity over the past 50 years to the point of being considered an acceptable and encouraged aspect of our culture.[6] In the name of political correctness the organized and corporatized media in our culture has emphasized, relentlessly, in films, TV programming and advertising that men are little more than buffoons, or are nothing more than nuisances to those who are currently in power. In other words, our institutions frequently, if not routinely, seem to regard men as disposable.

This organized and deliberate campaign to demonize and demean men, their sexuality, their values, their history, and diminish every incentive that Men have to participate in our culture, can have no other effect than to demoralize Men, and, drive Men into despondency over their natural birthrights.

This organized campaign to demonize and demoralize Men, because of their animus[7] and gender differences, seems aimed (either recklessly or deliberately) at the most vulnerable among us. Suicide is rarely a matter of “choice” or a rational decision. Although Men in desperate circumstances have sometimes committed suicide as a rational act (suicide was common in warrior cultures such as the Samurai culture in Japan, and, among warriors in Ancient Rome), modern suicide by men is almost exclusively an act of hopelessness, despondency and despair that is part of clinical depression.

In future articles in this series we will explore some of the specifics of clinical depression as it affects Men, and, how misandry promotes clinical depression in men. We’ll also explore some of the aspects of our culture, and its open hatred of men, that causes men who are vulnerable to clinical depression to commit suicide. Finally, we’ll try in future articles to advance some solutions to the problem of Men leaving us through suicide.

 

About the Author:

Please visit John’s AMAZON author’s page at: http://www.amazon.com/John-Davis-BA-JD-LLM/e/B00O2JS3HW/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0

John Davis (1953 – ) was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He was educated at Case Western Reserve University (BA) (one of the top ten universities in the United States), Seattle University School of Law (JD), and, New York University School of Law (LL.M post-doctoral) (one of the top ten law schools in the United States). John is fluent in seven languages (including ancient Latin and Greek). He has travelled the world over, many times, and has represented clients, in his thirty five year career, such as the United States Government and the Federation of Russia.

He has been a prosecutor three times in his 35 year career. He has held positions such as Assistant Attorney General, United States Speaker, and Assistant District Attorney, Chief Wing JAG, U. S. Air Force Auxilliary, and Supreme Court Law Clerk.

For most of his career in civil law, John was a successful international lawyer, practicing in many nations around the world.

John has authored the following MRA books:

Female Sex Predators: A Crime Epidemic

Women Who Rape Men

False Accusations of Rape: Lynching in the 21st. Century

How to Avoid False accusations of Rape

Women of the Klan: Foundations of Modern Feminism

Rape Hysteria: Lying with Rape Statistics

 

[1] Bacheloris Artis, Case Western Reserve University 1975; Juris Doctor, Seattle University School of Law 1981; Legis Magister, New York University School of Law 1984.

[2] Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions (2015), National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/suicide-faq/index.shtml

[3] Suicide Statistics, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (2016). https://afsp.org/about-suicide/suicide-statistics/

[4] Definition of passive-aggressive in English: passive-aggressive, adj., Of or denoting a type of behavior or personality characterized by indirect resistance to the demands of others and an avoidance of direct confrontation, as in procrastinating, pouting, or misplacing important materials. Oxford English Dictionary, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/passive-aggressive

[5] 162 Cong. Rec. 124 (August 3, 2015) (statement of Sen. Elizabeth Warren) [[Pages S6215-S6228] https://www.congress.gov/congressional-record/2015/8/3/senate-section/article/s6215-1

[6] See generally, Nathanson, Paul & Young, Katherine, Spreading Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2d. Ed., 2006; Nathanson, Paul & Young, Katherine, Legalizing Misandry: From Public Shame to Systemic Discrimination Against Men, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006; Nathanson, Paul & Young, Katherine, Replacing Misandry: A Revolutionary History of Men, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015.

[7] animus, animi, noun, L. declension: 2nd declension gender: masculine. Definitions: male air, male feelings, male heart, male intellect, male mind, male soul, male spirit, courage, character, pride.   Oxford Latin Dictionary, 1982.